New generation cooperative

New generation cooperatives (NGCs) are an adaptation of traditional cooperative structures to modern, capital intensive industries. They are sometimes described as a hybrid between traditional co-ops and limited liability companies. They were first developed in California and spread and flourished in the US Mid-West in the 1990s.[28] They are now common in Canada where they operate primarily in agriculture and food services, where their primary purpose is to add value to primary products. For example producing ethanol from corn, pasta from durum wheat, or gourmet cheese from goats milk. The primary sector of the economy is the sector of an economy making direct use of natural resources. This includes agriculture, forestry and fishing, mining, and extraction of oil and gas. This is contrasted with the secondary sector, producing manufactured and other processed goods, and the tertiary sector, producing services. The primary sector is usually most important in less developed countries, and typically less important in industrial countries. The manufacturing industries that aggregate, pack, package, purify or process the raw materials close to the primary producers are normally considered part of this sector, especially if the raw material is unsuitable for sale or difficult to transport long distances.[1] Primary industry is a larger sector in developing countries; for instance, animal husbandry is more common in Africa than in Japan.[2] Mining in 19th century South Wales is a case study of how an economy can come to rely on one form of business.[3] Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of the primary sector, with the logging and oil industries be

ng two of Canada's most important. However, in recent years, the number of terminal exchanges have heavily reduced Canada's primary industry, making them rely more on quaternary industry.Durum wheat or macaroni wheat (also spelled Durhum;[a] Triticum durum or Triticum turgidum durum[1]) is the only tetraploid species of wheat of commercial importance that is widely cultivated today.[citation needed] It was developed by artificial selection of the domesticated emmer wheat (like emmer, durum wheat is awned) strains formerly grown in Central Europe and the Near East around 7000 BC, which developed a naked, free-threshing form.[2] Durum in Latin means "hard", and the species is the hardest of all wheats. Its high protein content, as well as its strength, make durum good for special uses, the most well-known being pasta which in Italy is exclusively made from durum wheat.[3] Durum wheat is used extensively in breadmaking. However, it is unusual in that, despite very high protein content, it is low in desirable gluten needed to form a glutinous web necessary for bread to rise. As a result, although 100 percent durum wheat breads do exist, such as pagnotte di Enna from Sicily, as well as others, in most instances bread doughs contain only a portion of durum wheat and are supplemented substantially with commercial white flours, oftentimes those higher in gluten necessary to offset the poor gluten contribution of durum flour. When durum flour is used as the sole flour in bread, substantial additions of isolated wheat gluten are necessary to effect rising. Without it, 100 percent durum wheat breads are often heavy, with very close grain, and will split easily when risen for baking.

Menu